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George Nelson, Director of Project 2061 of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), suggests that the majority of our nation is not science literate: "In general knowledge of science and mathematics, U.S. 12th graders were among the lowest-scoring students from the 41 nations that participated in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)" (Nelson, 1999, p. 14), This alarming statistic reflects the great demand for science teachers across the nation, especially in urban areas such as New York City. In New York state, elementary teachers seeking certification are commonly required to take only six credits in science.

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