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Conference Proceeding

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Journal Title or Book Title

Northeast Business and Economics Association (NBEA) 2018


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PUBLISHED BY THE NORTHEAST BUSINESS & ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION © 2018 The Northeast Business & Economics Association reserves the right to publish the Proceedings in both print and electronic formats. The individual authors retain the copyright over their own articles.


In 2009, 48 states established the Common Core Standards in response to the growing movement by state governors and corporate leaders who believed that high school exit expectations fall short of employer and college demands. Soon thereafter standardized assessments were developed that were geared to the more rigorous standards. In New York State (NYS), resistance slowly started arising shortly after the new assessments commenced in 2013. By 2016, nearly 22% of all third-to-eighth graders in NYS opted out of taking the ELA, making NYS one of the highest opt-out states in the nation. Data from the New York State Education Department reveals a large ethnic disparity in opt-out rates. In 2016, the overall optout rate in NYS stood at 21.7%. This compares to a white opt-out rate of 51.4%, an African-American opt-out rate of 10%, a Hispanic opt-out rate of 16.0% and an Asian opt-out rate of 7.0%. What factors can explain this wide disparity? The results indicate that factors affecting the white opt-out rate include whether the county is situated within New York City, county median income and county political affiliation. Factors impacting the black opt-out rate is influenced by county “ruralness” and county median income.

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