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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 International License.

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) Nursing




School of Nursing and Health Sciences



Simulation has created a new paradigm in nursing education. Behaviors that demonstrate caring are important aspects of quality nursing practice. Nursing education needs to integrate opportunities to teach caring, and simulation is an ideal environment to do this. Faculty must assist nursing students to establish competence in psychomotor, cognitive, and the affective domains of learning. Many of the widely used, standardized scenarios in simulation predominantly focus on critical-thinking skills while marginalizing the demonstration of caring behaviors.


The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the effect of a caring concept educational intervention (CCEI) in students’ self-reported confidence and demonstration of caring behaviors and their perception of the impact of the CCEI on their practice.


The design was a quasi-experimental, comparative posttest design with a qualitative component. A convenience sample of 40 senior undergraduate nursing students was divided equally into either an experimental or control group in a non-random manner. The experimental group completed the educational intervention during prebriefing. Following the simulation session, students answered demographic and open-ended questions and the Caring Efficacy Scale-Simulation Student Version items electronically. Two faculty observers scored students’ demonstration of caring behaviors with the Caring Efficacy Scale-Simulation Faculty Version after viewing the simulation session recordings.


Independent sample t-tests were used to compare the student scores and faculty ratings between the experimental and control groups. No significant differences were noted between the two groups. Analyses conducted between demographic characteristics and students’ caring v efficacy scores did not yield any significant findings. Qualitative analysis revealed that students perceived the CCEI had a positive impact on ability to demonstrate caring behaviors.


These findings demonstrate a benefit to incorporating the caring concept in simulation for prelicensure nursing students. A greater emphasis on caring in nursing education can promote the shift to a more holistic, patient-centered focus and develop a more compassionate nursing workforce.

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Nursing Commons