Document Type


Publication Date


Journal Title or Book Title

Limnology and Oceanography Letters


Publisher's PDF

Publisher's Statement

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.




Understanding plankton dynamics in marine ecosystems has been advanced using in situ molecular and imaging instrumentation. A range of research objectives have been addressed through high‐resolution autonomous sampling, from food web characterization to harmful algal bloom dynamics. When used together, molecular and imaging sensors can cover the full‐size range, genetic identity, and life stages of plankton. Here, we briefly review a selection of in situ instrumentation developed for the collection of molecular and imaging information on plankton communities in marine ecosystems. In addition, we interviewed a selection of instrumentation developers to determine if the transfer of sensor technology from marine to freshwater ecosystems is feasible and to describe the process of creating in situ sensors. Finally, we discuss the status of in situ molecular and imaging sensors in freshwater ecosystems and how some of the reviewed sensors could be used to address basic and applied research questions.

Related Pillar(s)


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.