Jill Lucente

Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Music Therapy


Music Therapy

First Advisor

Dr. Seung-A Kim


The purpose of this self-inquiry is to gain insight into the listening process I employ as a therapist through improvising with my clients, and also to better understand how the listening process influences the therapeutic relationship. Data was collected from two selected videotaped sessions of two clients (for a total of four videos). The sessions were transcribed and moments of improvisational music making were analyzed. Five areas were highlighted: client’s responses, therapist’s process, therapist’s responses, therapist’s reflection, and type of clinical listening. Adapted from Lee’s six levels of clinical listening, four types of listening were identified: explorative listening, perceptive listening, grounded listening, and spiritual listening. Results demonstrate that listening during the session can be a different process than listening while reviewing session videos. In addition, the therapist’s listening tendencies: explorative listening, perspective listening, and grounded listening are revealed. The influence of clinical listening on the therapeutic relationship has proved to be significant. The adaptation and application of these listening types are discussed, and conclusions and implications for training and practice are presented.

Related Pillar(s)


Included in

Music Therapy Commons